In C. Bonifazi, M. Okólski, J. Schoorl, & P. Simon (Eds.). Leah Boustan interviewed by Tim Phillips ... 14 - 14 January 2021 / Online / Centre for Economic Policy Research and the Universities of Oxford and York . The fight against pollution intensifies in the 1970s. Seeking asylum in Europe. A significant number of people from the colonies came to Belgium, France, the Netherlands, the UK, and in the 1970s, Portugal. Although governments initially tried to limit family migration, this met little success (Castles et al. Learn which countries lead in refugee resettlement, where particular refugee populations have dispersed around the world, and more. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, new asylum applications followed the conjuncture of admission restrictions and numbers of violent conflicts (ibid.). Figure. We looked at both immigration and emigration in the European context to do sufficient justice to the dynamic nature of migration. Whereas in the first period, European migrants were most numerous, the share of non-European migrant populations significantly grew during the second period. Murray, R., Harding, D., Angus, T., Gillespie, R., & Arora, H. (2012). Patterns of migration from, towards, and within Europe underwent significant changes and further diversification starting in 1990. Besides migration flows from non-European countries, the favourable economic conditions in Southern Europe also resulted in return migration among those who had moved to Northern Europe. Intra-European mobility is often considered in positive terms, as contributing to the EU’s ‘vitality and competitiveness’ (e.g., EC 2011, 3–4). Furthermore, we examined the demographic characteristics of these migration flows as well as the characteristics of residing migrants across Europe using recent data. Both may shift in the course of time. In addition, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Belgium recruited Turkish and Moroccan guest workers beginning in t… These movements likely include retirement migration from Northern to Southern Europe, but also point to increased labour mobility between these countries, especially considering the flows towards the UK, as will be further discussed later. Nevertheless, the largest share of these Aussiedler (63 %) arrived after 1989 (Dietz 2006). Bonifazi, C. (2008). Due to struggles for independence in former colonies, many European countries received return migrants as well as migrants fleeing hostile conflict environments. Welcome to the EU Immigration Portal. Social-structural differences for Italian, British, French and Polish nationals in the period between 1980 and 2002. From 1900 to 1920, nearly 24 million immigrants arrived during what is known as the “Great Wave”. Boston is one of the most extreme examples in Britain of a town affected by recent EU immigration. 2014). The jobs available were often irregular ones, characterized by unfavourable labour conditions and low pay, making them unattractive to the local population. Levrau, F., Piqueray, E., Goddeeris, I., & Timmerman, C. (2014). In C. Bonifazi, M. Okólski, J. Schoorl, & P. Simon (Eds.). It should be noted, however, that statistical data on migration and mobility in Europe is mostly incomplete, as they are based mainly on reports and registrations of the individuals concerned. As a result, West Germany reoriented its recruitment towards elsewhere. For Sweden, the most popular destinations for migrants are (besides the Nordic neighbours) English-speaking countries such as the UK and the USA (Mannheimer 2012). De Valk, H. A. G., & Díez Medrano, J. During this time, we find substantial diversification in terms of countries of origin, destinations, flows, migration motives, and structure of migrant populations. Poulain, M., Perrin, N., & Singleton, A. Twenty years later, at the beginning of the 1970s, these numbers had increased substantially in both absolute and relative terms (Table 3.1). As a result, North-Western European governments started to recruit labour in peripheral countries. The United States began regulating immigration soon after it won independence from Great Britain, and the laws since enacted have reflected the politics and migrant flows of the times. Nevertheless, migration flows were transformed rather than halted. Immigrant migration dynamics model for the Netherlands. Spain’s and the UK’s migration balances might reflect continuing migration from former colonies and historical links with various world regions which include, for example, language similarities. By the end of this period, migration flows had started to divert towards former emigration countries in Southern Europe. Introduction. (2014). In West Germany, for example, there was a significant inflow of workers from Greece, Italy, and Spain, as well as from East Germany. Estimates of the numbers of individuals that left Italy, Spain, Greece, and Portugal between 1950 and 1970 vary from 7 to 10 million (Okólski, In this same phase, numbers of asylum applications started to rise in Europe (especially in the 1980s and after the fall of the Berlin Wall; Hansen, The 1992 Maastricht Treaty’s abolition of borders considerably eased intra-EU movements (see also next sections of this chapter). The UK negotiates an optout on both. Furthermore, these countries were experiencing economic growth and falling birth rates, resulting in labour shortages (Castles et al. The share of non-EU nationals in these movements barely surpasses 4 % in the countries for which statistics are available: 1.8 % in Germany, 3.6 % in Austria, 3.7 % in Finland, 2.3 % in the Netherlands, and 1.2 % in the UK (ibid.). This reflected the continuing immigration and natural growth of these populations. In the Treaties … On the demand side of international labour mobility: The structure of the German labour market as a causal factor of seasonal Polish migration. The crisis gave impetus to economic restructuring, sharply reducing the need for labour (Boyle, Halfacree & Robinson 1998). (2008). This research was part of and supported by the European Research Council Starting Grant project (no. Nowok, B., Kupiszewska, D., & Poulain, M. (2006). In the Mediterranean region, for example, emigration helped to alleviate pressures on the labour market, as the region was characterized by significant demographic pressure, low productivity and incomes, and high unemployment (Page Moch 2003; Vilar 2001). A comparison of annual gross national product per capita in the 1960s illustrates this with US $353 for Turkey, $822 for Spain, and $1272 for Italy; $1977 for the UK and $2324 for France (Page Moch 2003, 180). The analyses on flows of migration are supplemented by a sketch of the residing immigrant population across Europe. One of the most important elements in this period has been the removal of barriers to intra-European mobility, while migration into the EU has become more restricted. Studying migration systems rather than focusing exclusively on one aspect of mobility is thus called for. 2014; Ryan and Mulholland 2013). Lastly, migration is often not limited to moving from Country A to Country B but may involve several successive destinations. In practice, these categories reflect migration motives as accepted in admission labels. But it was also the result of a larger extent of return migration among Southern European populations, given the increased quality of life and employment opportunities in Southern Europe (Barou 2006). The first group consists of countries where intra-EU immigration and emigration comprises the largest share of migration movements. As a result, it seems that comparable to the “migration stop” after the oil crisis of the 1970s or during the Cold War, migration towards Europe will be transformed rather than come to a complete halt in the coming years. 202-266-1940 | fax. Moreover, student migration from outside the EU became increasingly important in some parts of the EU (ibid.). Furthermore, asylum applications increased. Academic mobility and immigration. The European Parliament increases its influence in EU affairs and in 1979 all citizens can, for the first time, elect their members directly. Integration Processes and Policies in Europe, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute/ KNAW/UG, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21674-4_3. Some countries’ governments have actively recruited students with the intention of incorporating the “best and brightest” into their domestic labour market upon graduation (Lange 2013). 2008). In this context the paper seeks to make a contribution to the debate and discussions on the vital issue of migration both in Europe and beyond. Migration Policy Institute Europe, established in Brussels in 2011, is a nonprofit, independent research institute that aims to provide a better understanding of migration in Europe and thus promote effective policymaking. The history of the 20th century Europe is characterized by great social, political and economic changes, and the construction of a common European society. Abel, G. J., & Sander, N. (2014). The top-five countries of origin during this period were the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (836,000), Romania (400,000), Turkey (356,000), Iraq (211,000), and Afghanistan (155,000) (ibid.). We provide a comprehensive historical overview of the changes in European migration since the 1950s. Figure, We start with characteristics of those who move. Guest editorial on meeting and mating across borders: Union formation in the European Union single market. Why do Europeans migrate to Berlin? It is important to bear these different periods in mind when studying current migration flows in Europe. They therefore tended to be granted few rights and little or no access to welfare support (Boyle et al. 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